George Washington's Enduring Realism
John Avlon, Washington’s Farewell: The Founding Father’s Warning to Future Generations. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2017), 368 pp., $27.00.
ON FEBRUARY 27, Sen. Ben Sasse spent about forty-two minutes reading George Washington’s Farewell Address on the Senate floor, an annual tradition—with readers from alternating parties—since 1893. (The first reading was in 1862, to a joint session of Congress. Annual Senate readings began in 1896.) Once Senator Sasse completed this extended oration, however, viewers quickly learned that while today’s senators value the tradition sufficiently to select one of their number each year to maintain it, they appear to view the individual so honored as a ritual sacrifice whose dutiful reading excuses his colleagues from attending the event and perhaps also from contemplating Washington’s advice. When Senator Sasse concluded this noble duty, the Senate’s presiding officer noted “the absence of a quorum” in the chamber and, as the camera’s field of view widened, the broader perspective revealed rows of empty desks.
For anyone living and working within the capital’s political bubble, it is hardly news that busy senators may consider other obligations—constituent meetings, briefings, fundraising calls, reviewing legislation—more pressing than a former president’s parting thoughts, especially when presented annually and in convoluted eighteenth-century prose. Indeed, the House of Representatives gave up its own yearly readings of Washington’s Farewell Address in 1979. Still, like many political rituals, this one appears to have preserved form without content. It has largely lost whatever symbolic power or social value it once held.
John Avlon’s Washington’s Farewell: The Founding Father’s Warning to Future Generations is a welcome reminder that the lessons America’s first president internalized from the revolution, the flawed Articles of Confederation and his two terms as the nation’s first chief executive retain considerable worth over two centuries later. “A work of popular and practical history,” as Avlon describes it, rather than a scholarly assessment, the book is timely, engaging and useful in telling the story of Washington’s Farewell Address, distilling some of its main themes and reviewing its subsequent impact on America’s political debates. While the book is not quite politically neutral, Avlon’s preferences are usually sufficiently subtle to avoid detracting from the work.
Avlon divides his book into three sections: a brief history of the address, a summary of what he describes as Washington’s “pillars of liberty” and a review of its later resonance. Since the book is a work of popular history and is relatively short, Washington aficionados may find that Avlon traverses expansive historical terrain at too swift a pace, sacrificing important detail in the process. Any effort at readable popular history requires compromises.
The central section of Washington’s Farewell—on the pillars of liberty—form not only the physical core of the book, but also the core of Avlon’s message to modern-day readers. He plucks six themes from the speech: national unity, political moderation, fiscal discipline, virtue and religion, education and a foreign policy of independence. Each has demonstrable modern-day value, though Avlon’s inclusion of education is questionable in view of Washington’s decision to allocate only two sentences to the topic in the address. Avlon justifies this by describing Washington’s long-term commitment to education (perhaps connected to the general’s limited formal education), his desire to establish a national university, and Alexander Hamilton’s successful effort to persuade Washington to move the topic from the farewell to his final address to Congress, which Hamilton argued should focus on policy objectives.
Avlon’s case may not be unreasonable, but another author could easily have excluded education from the six pillars and included law and order in its place. Just two years after the Whiskey Rebellion, Washington’s farewell insisted that
this government, the offspring of our own choice . . . has a just claim to your confidence and your support. Respect for its authority, compliance with its laws, acquiescence in its measures, are duties enjoined by the fundamental maxims of true liberty.
The “law and order” passage is significantly longer than Washington’s comments on education and at least equally supported by his earlier statements and efforts. Considering that Washington’s use of federal troops to put down the Whiskey Rebellion asserted federal power at the expense of the states, it is also consistent with Avlon’s later discussion of competing efforts to appropriate Washington by North and South before and during the Civil War. Washington’s conservative disposition is likewise visible when he urges “not only that you steadily discountenance irregular oppositions to [the government’s] acknowledged authority, but also that you resist with care the spirit of innovation upon its principles, however specious the pretexts.” This is the prelude to Washington’s well-known assault on “the spirit of party.”
That text, and Washington’s subsequent elaboration of his foreign-policy principles, are justifiably the best-remembered components of the Farewell Address and contain a compelling “warning to future generations,” as Avlon’s subtitle puts it.